Feb

02

Projectile Motion

**Projectile motion** is a form of motion in which an object or particle (called a projectile) is thrown near the earth’s surface, and *it moves along a curved path under the action of **gravity** only.* The only force of significance that acts on the object is gravity, which acts downward to cause a downward acceleration. Because of the object’s inertia, no external horizontal force is needed to maintain the horizontal motion.

## The initial velocity

Let the projectile be launched with an initial velocity , which can be expressed as the sum of horizontal and vertical components as follows:

The components and can be found if the angle is known:

If the projectile’s range (R), launch angle (θ or α), and drop height (h) are known, launch speed can be found using Newton’s formula:

## Kinematic quantities of projectile motion

In projectile motion, the horizontal motion and the vertical motion are independent of each other; that is, neither motion affects the other. This is the principle of *compound motion* established by Galileo in 1638.

Acceleration

Since there is only acceleration in the vertical direction, the velocity in the horizontal direction is constant, being equal to . The vertical motion of the projectile is the motion of a particle during its free fall. Here the acceleration is constant, being equal to . The components of the acceleration are:

Velocity

The horizontal component of the velocity of the object remains unchanged throughout the motion. The downward vertical component of the velocity increases linearly, because the acceleration due to gravity is constant. The accelerations in the and directions can be integrated to solve for the components of velocity at any time , as follows:

The magnitude of the velocity (under the Pythagorean theorem, also known as the triangle law):

Displacement

Displacement and coordinates of parabolic throwing

At any time , the projectile’s horizontal and vertical displacement are:

The magnitude of the displacement is:

Parabolic equation

Main article: Trajectory of a projectile

Consider the equations,

If is eliminated between these two equations the following equation is obtained:

This equation is the equation of a parabola. Since , , and are constants, the above equation is of the form

in which and are constants. This is the equation of a parabola, so the path is parabolic. The axis of the parabola is vertical.

Time of flight or total time of the whole journey

The total time for which the projectile remains in the air is called the time of flight.

After the flight, the projectile returns to the horizontal axis, so y=0

Note that we have neglected air resistance on the projectile.

Maximum height of projectile

Maximum height of projectile

The greatest height that the object will reach is known as the peak of the object’s motion. The increase in height will last until , that is,

Time to reach the maximum height:

From the vertical displacement of the maximum height of projectile:

Relation between horizontal range and maximum height

The relation between the range on the horizontal plane and the maximum height reached at is:

**Proof**

Maximum distance of projectile

** Range of a projectile**

The maximum distance of projectile

It is important to note that the range and the maximum height of the projectile does not depend upon its mass. Hence range and maximum height are equal for all bodies that are thrown with the same velocity and direction.

The horizontal range “ “of the projectile is the horizontal distance it has traveled when it returns to its initial height (*y* = 0).

Time to reach ground:

From the horizontal displacement the maximum distance of projectile:

Note that” ”has its maximum value when

Which necessarily corresponds to

or

Application of the work energy theorem

According to the work-energy theorem the vertical component of velocity is: